It’s easy to accuse soccer matches or other sports of being infiltrated by match-fixing practices. But some people don’t really know about a match or competition can get results. It’s not as simple as bribing a player or referee to do something.
Basically fixing match settings not compatibility. Matching occurs when a party compiles to agree to lose, draw or win the opposing party without maximum success. Meanwhile, free all means to win, for example doping.
There are two types of match management in football, namely match management and gambling betting.
Arranging match settings that occur corruptors manipulate football matches to ensure one of the teams lose or draw. While match-fixing gambling takes place, a compilation of corruptors manipulates with the intention of gaining maximum profits on the betting market.
If you want to be beaten flat, match fixing only benefits one team, while gambling match fixing makes a team sabotaged by certain parties in the interest of the needy.
So in match-fixing gambling, a corruptor doesn’t care if Team A or Team B lose or win. They only care about their personal benefits. It would be better if they could control many parties (in this case Team A and B).
According to Betberry (gambling online agents who reports on match-fixing), 88.2% of cases that regulate match-fixing are initiated by team administrators. Then in match-fixing gambling, 86.4% “games” are initiated by external agents such as bookies or criminal organizations.
The game selection operation in football is also divided into two, namely small but often and long-term “games”; or “game” is very big but in a short amount of time. The second type of operation. For example: A dark horse can win the final.
Market Betting Effect
Actually match fixing is not always based on gambling (gambling). But gambling does affect the outcome of many sports matches because many people bet, from football, Formula 1 racing, cricket, even to the lowest level and do not attract public attention like the U16 women’s competition in the seventh division.
In betting or gambling markets, the main goal is determined. Therefore there are two settings that occur, namely to regulate the match and regulate the betting market.
Every match has its odds (odd). This makes a bet have value. Corruptors usually have a problem, that is if they manage to get a “player” to lose a match, they will bet for the eleven opponents to win. That way they will benefit.
The more money they fight over their “players”, the more money they will get. This is called a “betting market license”.
If the bettor (corruptor) installs too much money, the dealer will be suspicious that it will change. While they are too small, it will make the match settings unfeasible, making their bribes for “players” useless in the betting market.
For corruptors who do not have enough money, they will invite investors, who make corruptors accept as brokers: they agree to “players”, then go to investors who can provide them with a lot of money.
Therefore the bettor (corruptor) always tries to get caught, because the main point of the match fixing is to challenge the dealer in order to gain an advantage for the corruptor. Here the bookie opposes can be a “victim”, not a resistance.
This is also the reason that match fixing is more difficult to happen in important matches (like the World Cup) because the money that flows will be very large and also more successful. Match fixing happens in small leagues because “players” can be paid less (paid if “players” have not been paid for a long time) and no more difficult, because it takes a lot of care.
In general, “player” score fixing is done by referees, players and team administrators (managers, team presidents, coaches, etc.). Still according to Hill, the average meeting success rate becomes large if someone bribes the team administrator (90.5% success) from the player (83.1%) or the referee (77.8%).
Why can eleven administrators prefer success to success? While referees and players are those who are directly on the field, which can affect the results / scores directly.
Basically, the more people involved in the “game”, the higher the chance of success. If someone can influence a team administrator, it means they can influence a team as a whole instead of individuals such as players or referees.
In the line picture above, both players, referees, and administrator teams are “players” (invited to “play”, who are paid to lose). According to the normal route, there are those who bribe or order them to arrange a match, which is “corrupt”.
To build a path like the one above, there is a principle of trust that cannot be carelessly built. Therefore if a corruptor asks a player or referee to be involved, it is usually only temporary: done and forgotten.
However, corruptors who build trust in eleventh administrators can be more lasting, because they will enter into a system that is not affected by (for example) player movement or referee change.
Without this principle of trust, corruptors will not have the strength and certainty.
The problem is that corruptors cannot be directly involved. They need access to be able to invite referees, players, or administrators to “play”. They could have taken a direct approach. The problem is that most of them are outsiders.
If they decide on a direct approach, they must be smart in their approach, for example trying a hotel or a corridor with potential “players”. In direct practice, they can use prostitutes. While indirectly, they can pretend to be journalists who want to conduct interviews.
For this direct approach, the risk is greater for corruptors. Therefore they used to use the services of intermediaries commonly called runners or agents. This can make corruptors protected from detection, because the transaction process contains many layers.
This runner or agent also acts as a guarantor or guarantor, but some cannot act as guarantors. Can be a guarantor or not, runners still have the main power on access. They know who the “players” can be approached and who should be avoided (potentially complaining to the authorities).
In global practice, the role of runner is ideally taken by former players. Former players are those who really know the situation and field conditions. This type of runner can present the most efficient and promising “game” network.
Even so runners are also sometimes not people who know the exact conditions of the field, so he needs another “grip”, which can make the match-fixing path more layers. Because runners are people who know who can be “held”, those who can be “held” are usually called project managers.
Project managers are those who have direct influence on the “players”. Project managers are usually played by influential players, coaches, team owners, team officials, or federation officials.
With paths like this, even though they are long and multi-layered, they can make strong and difficult-to-detect networks. Those who are usually easily captured are also usually from the runner layer down (up to the “players”), while corruptors and upper people are more difficult to catch.
Big Shot Passive Class
In every action, corruptors certainly need protection. If they cannot get a protective figure from the guarantor (runner or agent), they will ask for a higher level, often underground.
In the 2011 Zimbabwe Football Federation report, match organizing groups from Asia were able to organize many of their national team matches for three years because they were protected by senior federation officials, players, and even reporters who raided the news of the match.
Other Asian match-fixer groups can also arrange European matches (mainly Italy and Eastern Europe) because they are protected by Balkan criminals who have access to players, referees and federation officials.
A dilapidated soccer competition has a higher percentage of pre-arranged matches than unregulated. Because this network has already happened “naturally”, the parties involved in it are already both know and need each other.
“Sometimes teams get along with each other. They want to help others. The bosses then bet on the outcome of the match. This happens a lot in the lower divisions, “said Milan Sapina, a corruptor, who confessed to Declan Hill in 2007.
Sapina said, the corruptors seemed to be able to manage the match easily for two reasons. First because they have alliances with other corruptors, especially in Asia. Secondly because they have connections to local football owners who have made match-fixing as their business strategy for personal gain.
From this we both know that the easiest “players” are those who also “play”. Those who also “play” are usually those in power and have a lot of money.
That also makes it impossible to strip the match-fixing case. Usually these people are the ones who play the role of “players” – even if they are passive – but the big classes. They are difficult to express and capture, and even if revealed, they can reverse the accusations; it’s the whistleblower who will be sentenced, not them. All because they have the power and have money.
So the question is: can this global practice be eradicated? Of course, I can. One that starts eradication is good detection. The police and the media play a large role there.
However match-fixing, despite its global scale, is public fraud; who got conned millions of people.
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